Conflict and post-conflict settings pose specific challenges to HIV prevention and care efforts. Whereas armed conflicts have decreased very considerably in number, the interactions between HIV epidemiology and conflict remain problematic. This review describes factors that affect HIV in conflict and post-conflict settings, identifies challenges to addressing HIV, and presents actionable and measurable programming and funding recommendations that can be implemented immediately. Funding priorities include prevention and care efforts such as the provision and monitoring of universal precautions for HIV infection, health services for sexual violence and antiretroviral therapy. Policy efforts should prioritize enforcing appropriate conduct by peacekeepers and aid workers, interventions targeted at specific phases and contexts of conflicts, supporting the continuity of programmes from emergency to post emergency and reconstruction efforts and simplifying and accelerating funding mechanisms.