This report was commissioned by the USAID Bureau of Humanitarian Assistance (BHA); it aims to establish the current landscape of issues and perspectives associated with localization in the humanitarian sector as of this writing. In brief, localization remains an evolving concept with an ever-changing set of agendas. The first section of this report provides definitions. The second section reviews the policy commitments made in the Grand Bargain and demonstrates how today policy imperatives have moved beyond the Grand Bargain. At its core, this report contains an analysis of the factors that enable and hinder global efforts to promote localization, while recognizing that many issues are context specific. The report closes with key recommendations based on the findings. These recommendations are formulated specifically for international donors but may apply to many other actors as well.