HIV and AIDS, war, and civil strife have taken an enormous toll on Ugandan society in the past two decades, causing the deaths of tens of thousands of people and decimating the young and middle-aged portion of the population. The Uganda AIDS Commission (UAC) estimated in 2001 that at least 800,000 people had died of HIV-related illnesses in Uganda since the onset of the disease. The Joint United Nations Programmme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that a further 94,000 died in 2001 alone. At least 1.7 million children have been orphaned as a result, and the numbers keep rising. This case study looks at the impact HIV/AIDS has had on the children of Uganda.