The purpose of this chapter is to construct a framework for understanding the gender dimensions of post-conflict reconstruction (PCR), in order to strengthen assessments, project design, and policy-formulation – all with the aim of achieving the overarching goals of sustainable peace, participation and prosperity. Based on our experiences working with and reviewing projects in post-conflict settings, this chapter suggests gender dimensions that may strengthen programmes, promote gender equality, and enhance returns on PCR investments. It is predicated on the conviction that building and maintaining peace and prosperity requires attention to gender roles and relations in the post-conflict arena. To illustrate the gender dimensions, we use examples from the World Bank and other donors, including a sample of the Bank’s large post-conflict reconstruction development loans and its small post-conflict fund (PCF) grants. While many of these examples confirm our concern that policy-makers have been slow to employ gender analysis and focus, some cases illustrate the kind of gender-sensitive approaches that we advocate.