The material contained herein does not necessarily reflect the views of the Peace Operations Training Institute (POTI),the Course Author(s), or any United Nations organs or affiliated organizations. The Peace Operations Training Institute is an international not-for-profit NGO registered as a 501(c)(3) with the Internal Revenue Service of the United States of America. The Peace Operations Training Institute is a separate legal entity from the United Nations. Although every effort has been made to verify the contents of this course, the Peace Operations Training Institute and the Course Author(s) disclaim any and all responsibility for facts and opinions contained in the text, which have been assimilated largely from open media and other independent sources. This course was written to be a pedagogical and teaching document, consistent with existing UN policy and doctrine, but this course does not establish or promulgate doctrine. Only officially vetted and approved UN documents may establish or promulgate UN policy or doctrine. Information with diametrically opposing views is sometimes provided on given topics, in order to stimulate scholarly interest, and is in keeping with the norms of pure and free academic pursuit.